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What is difference between Java and C++?

What is difference between Java and C++?

Introduction to C++

C++ is one of the most widely used programming languages in different fields, such as game engines, high-frequency trading, etc., is C++. C++ language is developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. The language is an extension of the existing C programming language. C++, also known as "C with classes", has evolved and diversified over time and is implemented as a compiled language. C++ has taken root in many large software companies such as Microsoft, IBM, etc., and can be used to develop desktop applications, video games, servers such as e-commerce, web search and databases, and high-performance applications such as answering machines, space probes, etc.

Introduction to Java

James Gosling at Sun Microsystems developed Java and now it is a part of Oracle. Java has become a popular language for developing stand-alone and web applications. Java has become the most popular language, used by hundreds of software companies and millions of developers worldwide to create applications that solve real-world problems. Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language designed with as few application dependencies as possible. Java supports WORA - Write Once Read Anywhere. In other words, compiled Java code can run on any platform that supports Java without having to rebuild it.

Diffusion between C++ and Java

Let's look at some of the differences between C++ and Java.

Interpreted vs. compiled

Java is an interpreted language, which means that it is "compiled" at runtime into a binary language. Therefore, it can run on any operating system, regardless of where it was written. C++ is a compiled language, which means that your program is compiled for a specific operating system and will only run on that system. If you want your program to be compatible with another operating system, you must compile it for that system.

Memory management

Like most high-level programming languages, Java supports garbage collection for automatic memory management. In C++, memory must be managed manually using certain operators and pointers. 

Memory safe

Java is a memory-safe language, which means that the programmer will receive an error message if he tries to set a value outside the parameters of a specified array. C++ is much more flexible, but this comes at a price. C++ allows the programmer to set values outside of the allocated memory resources, but this can cause serious errors and failures in subsequent execution.

Speed and performance

Java is popular because the code of its speed as the code has to be interpreted at runtime, it is also slower. A C++ program is compiled into a binary file to run immediately, which is faster than Java programs.


The difference between C++ and Java in terms of multilingualism is the level of abstraction that facilitates writing concurrent programs. C++, as a low-level language, did not receive support for multilingualism in the standard library until C++11. Before that, managing POSIX or p threads in C was a very laborious task. Java has long provided many built-in tools and functions for writing concurrent code. However, a C++ program has a slight performance advantage in this respect because it is closer to the hardware.

Namespace Scope

C++ has a global scope and a namespace scope so that data and functions can exist outside of classes. Because Java uses an inheritance hierarchy, there is no namespace binding.

Class affiliation and filename

In Java, there is a strict relationship between the public class name and file name - the program will not compile if they don't match. Because class declarations are handled in the header file in C++, there is no such constraint; class and file names can be different.

Compatibility with other programming languages

Because C++ is a low-level compiled language, it is compatible with most other high-level languages. However, Java is not compatible with other languages.

Root Hierarchy

Most object-oriented languages follow a rooted hierarchy, where each class must be inferred from the other classes, except for the root class which is not inferred from the other classes. Java uses this simple inheritance system. Because C++ is both procedural and object-oriented, it does not follow a fixed root hierarchy.


Java is designed to be platform-independent. As long as the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is installed on the target machine, Java can be compiled into bytecode that can be run in the Java runtime environment (JRE). C++ is not normally considered portable because there is no such standard implementation. C++ source code generally needs to compile on all platforms, so it is platform-dependent.

Support for direct access to local system libraries

C++ is suitable for system-level programming because it allows the programmer to directly call local system libraries. Because Java is a higher-level language, additional tools (such as Java Native Interface or Java Native Access) are required to access native functions.

Structures and relationships

A structure is an ordered set of data objects, and relation is an ordered set of data objects that must start in the same memory location. Java does not support structures and relations. C++ supports both structures and by default treats them as classes with open members and inheritance.

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